Category: Heat Stress

Every day, millions of U.S. workers are exposed to heat in their workplaces. Although illness from exposure to heat is preventable, every year, thousands become sick from occupational heat exposure. Sadly, some cases are fatal. Hazardous heat exposure can occur indoors or outdoors. As a result, OSHA is sponsoring a “Beat the Heat Contest” to raise awareness of the dangers and hazards of heat exposure in both indoor and outdoor workplaces.

OSHA’s Beat the Heat Contest has four main goals:

  1. Educate stakeholders, especially workers and employers, about heat hazards in the workplace.
  2. Prevent heat illness by creating an awareness campaign that increases the public’s knowledge about this issue.
  3. Highlight the dangers of heat; and
  4. Motivate employers and workers to take action to prevent heat illness.

Tragically, every year, dozens of workers die and thousands more become ill while working in hot or humid conditions. To combat this, OSHA created a Heat Illness Prevention campaign in 2022 to educate employers and workers on the dangers of working in the heat. Whether you work outside, or inside in a hot and humid environment, you’re at risk of enduring a heat illness. “Our goal is to make it safe for workers in hot indoor and outdoor environments, so that they can return home safe and healthy at the end of each day,” said Assistant Secretary for Occupational Safety and Health Doug Parker. “Working together, we can ensure workers know their rights and employers meet their obligations in order to protect workers from the growing dangers of extreme heat.”

Some industries where workers have suffered heat-related illnesses:

  • Agriculture         
  • Bakeries, kitchens, and laundries
  • Construction – especially, road, roofing, and other outdoor work
  • Electrical utilities, boiler rooms  
  • Fire Service
  • Landscaping       
  • Iron and steel mills and foundries
  • Mail and package delivery           
  • Manufacturing
  • Oil and gas well operations          
  • Warehousing

What are heat illnesses? A heat illness is one caused by high temperatures and humidity. In a warm environment, the human body relies on its ability to get rid of excess heat to maintain a healthy internal body temperature. Heat dissipation happens naturally through sweating and increased blood flow to the skin. If heat dissipation does not happen quickly enough, the internal body temperature keeps rising and the worker may experience symptoms that include thirst, irritability, a rash, cramping, heat exhaustion, or heat stroke.

The four most common heat illnesses include:

  • Heat rash, which is a stinging skin irritation that turns your skin red.
  • Heat cramps, which are painful spasms in your muscles.
  • Heat exhaustion, which is caused by too few fluids and long hours in high temperatures, causes heavy sweating, a fast and weak pulse and rapid breathing.
  • Heat stroke happens when your temperatures rise above 106 degrees very quickly -within minutes. This is a life-threatening illness.

Heat illness is serious, but we can work together to prevent it.

Employer’s Responsibility

Employers can keep workers safe in the heat. Employers should create plans to protect workers from developing heat-related illnesses. Keeping workers cool and well-hydrated are the best ways to protect them when working in hot environments. If you or your employees are working in a hot work environment, it is vital to understand how to address heat-related illnesses to keep everyone safe.

Heat-related illnesses can be prevented. The first step in prevention is for employers and workers to recognize heat hazards. Management should commit to:

  • Protect new workers.
  • Train all employees to recognize heat hazards.
  • Determine whether total heat stress is too high.
  • Implement engineering and administrative controls to reduce heat stress.
  • Provide sufficient rest, shade, and fluids.

Unfortunately, most outdoor fatalities occur in the first few days of working in warm or hot environments because the body needs to build a tolerance (acclimatization) to the heat gradually over time. Lack of acclimatization is a major risk factor for fatal outcomes. Our bodies sweat to cool ourselves. Sometimes, sweating isn’t effective enough.

In fact, OSHA encourages water, rest, & shade as prevention as well as treatment for heat-related illness. In addition, engineering controls such as air conditioning, can make the workplace safer. Other options include making changes to workload and schedules. For example, scheduling work for the morning or shorter shifts with frequent rest breaks in the shade. Encourage workers in warm, humid environments to drink hydrating fluids. At a minimum, all supervisors and workers should receive training about heat-related symptoms and first aid. The best scenario in workplaces at high risk of heat illnesses would be a formal Heat Illness Prevention Program.

Heat Illness Prevention Program key elements include:

  • A Person Designated to Oversee the Heat Illness Prevention Program
  • Hazard Identification
  • Water. Rest. Shade. Message
  • Acclimatization
  • Modified Work Schedules
  • Training
  • Monitoring for Signs and Symptoms
  • Emergency Planning and Response

Worker Information

It is important to understand workers’ rights and vital information about heat illness. Clearly, some workers are more susceptible to heat-related illness. Personal risk factors include medical conditions, lack of physical fitness, previous episodes of heat-related illness, alcohol consumption, drugs, and use of certain medication. Management should commit to preventing heat-related illness for all employees. In accordance with their heat tolerance levels. Measurement of heart rate, body weight, or body temperature can provide individualized data to aid decisions about heat controls.

Training workers before work in extreme heat begins is just the first step in keeping workers safe. Additionally, tailoring the training to worksite conditions is key. Employers should provide a heat stress training program for all workers and supervisors that include the following:

  • Causes of heat-related illnesses and steps to reduce the risk.
  • The importance of acclimatization.
  • Recognition of the signs and symptoms of heat-related illnesses and administra­tion of first aid.
  • The importance of immediately reporting any symptoms or signs of heat-related illness.
  • Proper care and use of heat-protective clothing and equipment.
  • The added heat load caused by exertion, clothing, and per­sonal protective equipment.
  • Effects of other factors (drugs, alcohol, obesity, etc.) on tolerance to occupational heat stress.
  • Procedures for responding to symptoms of possible heat-related illness.
  • Procedures for contacting emergency medical ser­vices.

While heat related illnesses are dangerous, they are also preventable with the right knowledge and plan in place. Employees can be prepared and protected while working in less than perfect environments. At NSC, we are here to help. Our Heat Stress Training Program encourages employees to have a positive attitude about heat fatigue safety, learn the symptoms of heat exhaustion and how to recognize if their body is overheating to prevent heat fatigue.

Heat Stress Safety Training

Each year, more than 650 people succumb to a heat-related illness. According to the Center for Disease Control, heat-related illnesses are one of the deadliest weather-related health outcomes affecting Americans. However, the most devastating part of this equation is that all deaths from heat-related illnesses are preventable with the proper training and safety tools.

Learn here how to keep yourself and others safe while working in the heat.

What Are Heat-Related Illnesses?

Heat-related illnesses are those that occur after exposure to abnormally high or prolonged amounts of heat and humidity. There are three primary types of heat-related illnesses, including:

  1. Heat Cramps: A condition causing painful and often intense cramps or spasm of the muscles, usually after exercise or extreme exertion.
  2. Heat Exhaustion: Resulting from a loss of water and sodium in the body, heat exhaustion causing a range of bodywide symptoms. Left untreated, this can lead to heat stroke.
  3. Heat Stroke: The most severe form of heat-related illness, heat stroke can cause coma, seizures, and altered mental status. If left untreated, heat stroke can lead to death.

Learn the Signs of Heat-Related Illnesses

Identifying the signs of heat-related illnesses like heat stroke or exhaustion should be a crucial part of your safety strategy. A few common symptoms of heat related illnesses include:

  • Headache
  • Muscle aches or cramping
  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Fainting
  • High body temperature
  • Skin that is red, hot, and dry (no sweating)
  • Rapid pulse
  • Nausea, with or without vomiting
  • Confusion or altered mental state

Companies in industries that require employees to work outdoors or inside high-heat environments should implement training programs. Excellent examples of training materials include The National Safety Compliance’s Heat Stress Training Course Video Kit and Heat Stress Training Booklets.

Use Signage to Refresh Employees on Heat-Related Illnesses

Using signage like this Heat Stress Safety Poster can help keep heat safety at the forefront of an employee’s mind. Place posters and other visual aids in high-traffic areas like break rooms, offices, and workshops. In addition, include signage in areas where heat-related illnesses are more likely to occur.

Recognize Those Most at Risk for Heat Stress

Certain people are at a greater risk for heat-related illness. Learning to identify them can help prevent many tragedies from occurring. People who are at greater risk include:

  • Anyone over age 65 or under age five
  • People with autoimmune disease, heart disease, or breathing problems
  • Those who are overweight
  • People taking certain medications
  • Anyone who drinks heavily
  • Those exposed to high heat for extended periods
  • People recovering from illnesses

Know the Precautions to Take

A comprehensive overview of precautions to take during heat waves and inside high-temperature areas is crucial to your training efforts. The best heat stress training courses will include this information. To stay safe in high-heat environments, you should:

  • Wear loose, lightweight clothing
  • Drink plenty of water
  • Avoid dehydration beverages (like alcohol, coffee, or energy drinks)
  • Take frequent breaks in cooler areas (preferably in air conditioning)
  • Apply sunscreen when working outdoors
  • Use a buddy system, so nobody works in the heat alone
  • Try to avoid working during the hottest parts of the day, if possible
  • Avoid hot and heavy meals that can raise your internal body temperature
  • Use sports drinks to replace electrolytes lost when sweating

Companies should keep a close eye on the weather during warmer months to be aware of dangerous heat wave events. If possible, people usually working outdoors should stay home during these events. However, if staying home isn’t possible, companies should implement additional precautions like more frequent breaks or shorter work days until the heat wave has passed.

Additional Precautions for Working Around Fire or Electricity

People working around electricity, fire, or flammable materials should undergo additional heat stress and general safety training. Individuals working around these materials are more prone to injury and should be given training on:

You can also find valuable training resources for individual sectors or industries, such as welding. Certain professions have industry-specific training they need to perform their jobs safely and effectively.

What to Do If Someone Is Experiencing Heat Stress

If someone is experiencing heat stress, the most critical thing is to call 9-1-1 right away. While waiting for emergency first responders to arrive, try moving the affected individual to a shady or cool area. Do not dump cold water or offer ice water to drink if someone is experiencing heat stress, as this could cause the body to go into shock.

Companies should include first aid training as part of their onboarding procedures so everyone understands what to do should a heat-related event occur. An excellent education option is this First Aid Safety Training Course Video Kit, which includes segments on:

  • Basic first aid procedures
  • Proper handling of bloodborne pathogens
  • Treating cuts, scrapes, and burns (including chemical burns)
  • Broken bones and fractures
  • Heat stress events (including heat exhaustion and stroke)
  • Choking emergencies
  • CPR

The National Safety Compliance has the tools and information you need to keep yourself and others safe from heat-related illnesses. For more information, visit our heat stress safety product page. If you need help assessing your safety training needs or have questions, fill out our online contact form, and we’ll be in touch as soon as possible.